People often think that only girls and women have eating disorders. But 10 million boys and men in the U.S. have them as well. Children’s Health works closely with families to help boys with eating disorders understand their condition and develop healthier eating habits.
What are Eating Disorders in Boys?
People with eating disorders have unhealthy thoughts and behaviors around their food or body weight. They might exercise too much and/or diet to develop a muscular body shape, or avoid foods with certain tastes and textures. Children with eating disorders can develop serious health problems from not getting enough nutrients.
Many people think eating disorders don’t affect boys or men. That’s not true, but boys and men are often less likely to seek treatment. Fortunately, boys who do get treatment have the same results and success rates as girls.
What are the different types of Eating Disorders in Boys?
Eating disorders affect how a child thinks and behaves toward food. For example, a boy may see himself as overweight, even though he is actually normal weight or underweight. Or a boy might see himself as too skinny or not muscular enough and obsess over having a more muscular body.
The most common types of eating disorders in boys include:
Children with anorexia have a strong desire to avoid gaining weight. This can lead them to lose unhealthy amounts of weight. They are often extremely underweight (very thin) for their age but can be in or above their healthy weight range as well.
Children with bulimia tend to eat large amounts of food at once (called binge eating). Then they do something to avoid gaining weight, such as making themselves vomit, taking laxatives or exercising excessively. They can be average weight, underweight or even overweight for their age.
Children with ARFID struggle to eat for reasons that are unrelated to weight gain or body image. They may eat only a few specific foods and refuse all others. This may be based on texture, taste, a fear of choking or vomiting, or other fears or struggles. Boys with ARFID may lack the nutrients they need to grow and be active.
What are the signs and symptoms of Eating Disorders in Boys?
Symptoms vary depending on which eating disorder a boy has.
Common anorexia symptoms in boys
- Constant dieting and avoiding many foods
- Distorted view of body shape and weight, such as denying how thin they are
- Extreme thinness
- Frequent and intense exercise
- Losing weight quickly or in large amounts
- Avoiding family meals or eating in public
- Expressing concern about weight and body image, such as obsessing over big biceps or muscled abs
Common bulimia symptoms in boys
- Using pills such as laxatives and diuretics (to lose weight after bingeing)
- Constant talk or concern about food and weight
- Constant exercise
- Stealing, hiding or hoarding food
- Avoiding family meals or eating in public
- Spending long amounts of time in the restroom with the water running (to cover the sound of vomiting), especially right after meals
Common ARFID symptoms in boys
- Anxiety around food in social situations
- Avoiding eating or taking a long time to eat
- Growth problems
- Less energy than normal
- Requesting certain foods often and refusing others
- Weight loss
How are Eating Disorders in Boys diagnosed?
Only medical professionals can properly diagnose an eating disorder. They do this by gathering information about your child’s health and behavior through interviews, tests and exams.
To determine if your son has an eating disorder, we may look at their blood count and organ function, to see if they need medical care to restore the right balance of nutrients. We will ask you and your child about his eating and exercise habits, as well as certain social behaviors. Boys with eating disorders may withdraw from friends or do poorly in school, because they’re hiding or struggling with their disorder.
What causes Eating Disorders in Boys?
Many factors play a role in children developing eating disorders. These factors include genetics, stress, experiences, and social and cultural pressures to have a particular weight or appearance.
For example, many boys will feel pressure to be lean and muscular. This can lead to unhealthy eating habits and an obsession with changing their bodies.
Children of all different backgrounds, ethnicities, religions and cultures can develop eating disorders. They do not choose to have an eating disorder, nor do they develop one because of parenting choices.
How are Eating Disorders in Boys treated?
We take time to get to know each boy and his challenges, so we can plan the treatment that your son needs to get better. Treatments often include:
- Individual, group and family therapy to help your son develop healthier eating behaviors
- Nutritional counseling with a dietitian, who can help your son develop skills and plans for healthy eating
- Medical treatment, if necessary, to help restore the right balance of nutrients to your son’s body. We provide different levels of care depending on what your son needs. Many boys start out by staying in the hospital and receive less intensive care as their condition improves. Levels of care options include:
- Inpatient hospitalization, where your son stays in the hospital throughout the day and at night, so we can monitor his health and help him rebuild nutrients
- Partial hospitalization, where your child stays at the hospital throughout the day and goes home in the evening. While in a partial hospitalization program, your son is managed by a team of medical professionals and therapists and participates in therapy time and in school time.
- Intensive outpatient care, which involves three to four hours of group therapy treatment a day, three times a week, usually in the afternoon after school
- Outpatient care, which involves regular outpatient appointments