Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury

Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury

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Summary

Pediatric acute kidney injury refers to the sudden loss of kidney function due to an underlying illness.

Expanded Overview

Acute (sudden) kidney injury, formerly called acute renal failure, occurs when a kidney is damaged suddenly due to an illness or condition – not because of a blow or injury to a kidney as the name might suggest. It’s a sudden onset of kidney failure that can happen within a few hours or days.

Causes

Causes of acute kidney injury include:

Slow blood flow caused by:

  • Blood or fluid loss
  • Burns
  • Heart attack or heart failure
  • Low blood pressure
  • Major surgery
  • Organ failure
  • Overuse of NSAID pain medicines (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen)
  • Severe allergic reactions

Conditions:

  • Certain kidney diseases or conditions, including hemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Multiple myeloma cancer (cancerous plasma cells)
  • Scleroderma (diseases that affect connective tissues that support internal organs)
  • Sepsis (life-threatening infection)
  • Inflamed blood vessels, or “vasculitis,” which can scar blood vessels, making them stiff, weak and narrow

Blockage of the urinary tract caused by:

  • Blood clots in the urinary tract
  • Cancer
  • Kidney stones
  • Nervous system problems that affect the bladder

Symptoms

Symptoms of acute kidney injury include:

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