With pulmonary sequestration, blood supply is fed into the sequestration mass directly from the aorta (the main heart artery). Due to the attached vessels and rich blood supply, the mass can grow and possibly move the heart, diaphragm (breathing muscle between the chest and abdomen) and lungs.
The cause of pulmonary sequestration is unknown. Research does show that sometime during the development of the fetus in the womb, lung tissue will form abnormally, and the baby will be born with the lump or cyst.
There are two types of pulmonary sequestration, which are defined by the location of the mass:
Extrapulmonary (extralobular) – This type is located next to the lungs. It typically makes up about 25 percent of all cases and is often associated with other congenital conditions.
Intrapulmonary (intralobular) – This type is located inside the lungs. It typically makes up about 75 percent of all cases and is usually diagnosed later in life.
Physical and developmental symptoms include the following, which can also lead to further complications:
Accessory muscle use – heavy chest and shoulder movements, as a person struggles to breathe