Pediatric Pulmonary Sequestration
Pediatric pulmonary sequestration is a mass on the lungs that continues to grow to the point where it can move your organs.
A pulmonary sequestration is a fluid-filled cyst of abnormal lung tissue that is present at birth (congenital), much like congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) .
With pulmonary sequestration, blood supply is fed into the sequestration mass directly from the aorta (the main heart artery). Due to the attached vessels and rich blood supply, the mass can grow and possibly move the heart, diaphragm (breathing muscle between the chest and abdomen) and lungs.
The cause of pulmonary sequestration is unknown. Research does show that sometime during the development of the fetus in the womb, lung tissue will form abnormally, and the baby will be born with the lump or cyst.
There are two types of pulmonary sequestration, which are defined by the location of the mass:
- Extrapulmonary (extralobular) – This type is located next to the lungs. It typically makes up about 25 percent of all cases and is often associated with other congenital conditions.
- Intrapulmonary (intralobular) – This type is located inside the lungs. It typically makes up about 75 percent of all cases and is usually diagnosed later in life.
Physical and developmental symptoms include the following, which can also lead to further complications:
- Accessory muscle use – heavy chest and shoulder movements, as a person struggles to breathe
- Chest pains or pressure
- Collapsed lungs
- Coughing up blood or mucus
- Congestive heart failure
- Cyanosis – blue/gray tint to lips or fingernails
- Diaphragmatic hernia
- Failure to thrive
- Feeding difficulties
- Respiratory distress
- Respiratory infections – chronic (reoccurring) infections like bronchitis, colds or pneumonia