Pediatric hemophilia is a condition where a child can not stop bleeding due to the blood's inability to clot normally.
Clotting factors are necessary for blood to clot. There are two common factors that affect blood clotting including factor VIII and factor IX.
- Hemophilia A (classic hemophilia) - lack of factor VIII
- Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) - lack of factor IX
- Hemophilia C - referred to (by some providers) as lack of clotting factor XI
Types A and B are inherited and are passed from the parent to the child through the X chromosome.
When a carrier female is pregnant, there is a 50/50 change that this gene will be passed along to the child.
- If it is passed on to a boy, he will have hemophilia
- If it is passed on to a girl, she will be a carrier
If the father has hemophilia and the mother does not carry the gene:
- Boys will not have hemophilia
- Girls will be carriers
Type C does not usually cause problems, however, patients have increased bleeding following surgery.
- Uncontrolled bleeding (most common)
- Bleeding easily
- Bleeding into a joint (hemarthrosis)
- Bleeding into the muscles
- Bleeding into the brain
- Blood in urine or stool
Tests and Diagnosis
- Bleeding times
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Clotting factors
- Genetic/DNA testing