What is attention deficient hyperactivity disorder?
Attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder that causes differences in a group of brain operations known as executive functioning skills.
ADHD is a neurological disorder, meaning that it starts in the brain. The disorder causes differences with a set of brain operations known as “executive functioning skills” and their related behaviors. Many people who are unfamiliar with the condition think of ADHD as a condition that usually occurs in boys. However, ADHD occurs about equally in males and females, and the related challenges persist throughout an individual’s lifetime.
Executive functioning skills that may be affected due to ADHD include:
Impulsivity (acting before fully considering consequences)
Learning from mistakes
Motivation and effort
What are the types of ADHD?
There are three sub-types of ADHD, based on the symptoms a child has:
Combined presentation – child exhibits symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity for a time period of at least six months
Predominantly inattentive presentation – child exhibits symptoms of inattention for a time period of at least six months
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation – child exhibits symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity for a time period of at least six months
What causes ADHD?
ADHD is caused by chemical, structural and connectivity differences in a child’s brain, which is mostly the result of genetics.
What are symptoms of ADHD?
Symptoms of inattention
Signs and symptoms of inattention presented in ADHD include:
Avoids tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time, including schoolwork or homework
Being easily distracted
Can’t hold attention on tasks or play activities
Doesn’t follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores or other tasks
Doesn’t pay close attention to details
Doesn’t seem to listen when spoken to directly
Has trouble organizing tasks and activities
Makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work or in other activities
Often forgetful in daily activities
Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity
Signs and symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity presented in ADHD include:
Always has to be “on the go”
Blurts out an answer before the speaker has finished asking the question
Fidgets with or taps hands or feet
Has difficulty waiting their turn
Interrupts or intrudes on others
Leaves seat when instructed to stay in seat
Runs around or climbs in situations when it’s not appropriate
Squirms when seated or trying to be still
Unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly